International Update – June 2019

Date: June 3, 2019
Welcome to the latest installment of “International Update” – a monthly feature of the Washington Insider from John Creamer, MEMA’s advisor on international regulatory affairs. June’s installment summarizes the proposed UN Regulation for automatic emergency braking systems (AEBS). This regulation provides the details underpinning mandatory AEBS requirements pending in Japan and the EU and will likely be adopted at the June session of the UN World Forum for the Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29). This month’s update also provides a quick checklist of other regulatory changes on the WP.29 agenda for the June session, which will be of interest to members.

If there are topics you would like to see addressed in future “International Update” columns or if you have questions about this installment, please contact Leigh Merino. Please click through to read the whole column.

Light Vehicle AEBS

During its June session, WP.29 will likely adopt a new UN Regulation for light vehicle automatic emergency braking systems (AEBS). This regulation will set the terms for international acceptance of type approvals for “motor vehicles with regard to the Advanced Emergency Braking System (AEBS) for M1 and N1 vehicles”. Under the international trading system based upon type-approval certifications (commonly called the “1958 Agreement”), this regulation provides the technical specifications for mandatory AEBS requirements in Japan (starting later this year) and across the European Union (starting from 2022).

Broadly, light vehicle AEBS must provide a warning upon detection of an imminent collision (preferably at least 0.8 seconds) before initiation of the emergency braking. The emergency braking demand must be at least 5.0 m/s2 and may be aborted if the collision risk disappears. However, the regulation addresses passenger cars (M1 vehicles) and vans and light trucks (N1) differently with separate requirements for vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-pedestrian scenarios.

Light vehicle AEBS must be active when the vehicle is moving at speeds between 10-60 km/h for detection of other cars and between 20-60 km/h for pedestrian detection. Nonetheless, the text provides for temporary manual (upon two deliberate actions by the driver) and automatic deactivation as long as the vehicle speed is less than 10 km/h. For approval, manufacturers will be required to list the conditions under which the AEBS would automatically deactivate. The AEBS must automatically reactivate upon motor restart or when the conditions that triggered an automatic deactivation are no longer present.

The performance thresholds are based upon relative speeds of the vehicle under test and the target vehicle. The regulation only establishes permissible maximum impact speeds for stationary vehicle and pedestrian targets.

Passenger car AEBS are required to avoid collisions with other cars at speeds up to 40 km/h after which the regulation sets speed-reduction thresholds. From 42 km/h, the regulation allows impacts at relative speeds starting from 10 km/h to a maximum 35 km/h when the vehicle speed is 60 km/h. Vans and light trucks (N1 vehicles) have a more complex table of requirements based upon vehicle axle loads, mass, wheelbase, and center of gravity, but generally are required to avoid collisions at speeds up to 30 km/h. From 32 km/h, the permissible relative impact speeds progress from 15 km/h to 45 km/h depending upon the vehicle configuration and speed.

For pedestrian scenarios at speeds between 20-60 km/h, passenger cars have to avoid collisions at speeds up to 30 km/h after which the text sets maximum impact speeds at five kilometers-per-hour intervals ranging from 20 km/h at 35 km/h to 45 km/h at 60 km/h. Again, vans and light trucks have requirements based on vehicle configuration with the “no contact” minimum threshold starting at 20 km/h.

The regulation specifies testing against a stationary and a moving vehicle and against a pedestrian traversing the roadway. The text stipulates stationary target tests at 20, 42 and 60 km/h but gives testing services leeway to test at other speeds. Similarly, the test services have leeway in the prescribed moving-target scenario where the vehicle is driven at 30 and at 60 km/h against a lead target vehicle moving at 20 km/h. The pedestrian traversing the road at 5 km/h is run at vehicle speeds of 20, 30, and 30 km/h, again with leeway allowed with the speed range.

Otherwise, the regulation covers two tests for false positives using parked cars and a stationary pedestrian dummy and tests simulating AEBS malfunction and checking for automatic reinitialization upon motor restart following a deactivation.

WP.29 June Session Agenda

During its June 24-28 session, WP.29 will consider, and in most cases vote to adopt, the following regulatory changes:

Amendment 5 to GTR 15 (Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicle Emissions Test Procedure) to clarify and improve the text. The amendment is accompanied by an explanatory technical report.

Amendment 2 to GTR 19 (Motor Vehicle Evaporative Emissions) to address:
  • Calibration requirements and intervals for test equipment,
  • Equation of the variable-volume enclosure specified in the regulation, and
  • Improvements to the text, including:
    • Clarification of aged carbon canister and when to install,
    • Clarification and review of test equipment,
    • Clarification and review of requirements of an evaporative emission family,
    • Clarification of “carbon canister”,
    • Change to the term “carbon canister” used to catch depressurization puff loss overflow.
UN R17 (Strength of Seats) Supplement 1 to the 09 series of amendments to clarify the possibility to install side-facing seats in buses of category M2 and M3 of classes A and I.

UN R24 (Compression Ignition Engine Emissions and Net Power) Supplement 5 to the 03 series of amendments update the text and align the provisions of the 03 series of amendments with those of UN R85.

UN R44 (Child Restraint Systems) Supplement 16 to the 04 series of amendments to cease new CRS approvals under the regulation as of 1 September 2020.

UN R83 (Motor Vehicle Emissions) Supplement 13 to the 06 series, Supplement 9 to the 07 series of amendments to clarify the relationship between approval levels, reference fuels and PN limits for positive-ignition vehicles, modify the calculation formulae for determination of evaporative emissions (per GTR 19), and resolve a contradiction in requirements concerning the provision of SCR reagent consumption data via the serial port of the standard diagnostic connector.

UN R85 (Power Measurement of Internal Combustion Engines and Electric Motors) Proposal for Supplement 9 to reduce testing burdens by introducing an alternative test method to “decrease the charge air cooler outlet temperature by the same amount that the ambient conditions for the vehicle test varied from the standard temperature” (and align with SAE J1349, “9.3 Application of Vehicle Transient Data to Net Power Test.”).

UN R115 (LPG/GNG Retrofit Systems) Supplement 8 to align the text with the GTR 15 WLTC test cycle.

UN R129 (Enhanced Child Restraint Systems) Supplement 9 to the original text, Supplement 6 to the 01 series, Supplement 5 to the 02 series, Supplement 2 to the 03 series of amendments, including new labeling and packaging information, specifying approval mark dimensions, and to change the 145 cm stature of the Specific Vehicle Booster seat to150 cm.

UN R138 (Quiet Vehicles) Supplement 1 to the 01 series of amendments:
  • Exempt hybrid vehicles that do not provide valid test results (e.g., exempt electrified vehicles where the internal combustion engine (ICE) runs under the test conditions)
  • Clarify the text concerning permissible Approaching Vehicle Acoustic Systems (AVAS) operating conditions
  • Differentiate indoor and outdoor facility requirements (e.g., weather station requirement)
  • Clarify that the AVAS may be operational outside the specified speed ranges (e.g., where the speed range extends to 30 km/h such as in the US)
  • Align maximum sound threshold with UN R51.03
  • Explicitly specify that the AVAS may function even when the ICE is running
  • Clarify that a manufacturer may install an attenuation to enable the system to operate at different sound levels
  • Revise the transitional provisions in the 01 series of amendments per Revision 3 of the 1958 Agreement
UN R139 (Brake Assist Systems) Supplement 2 to clarify that the regulation does not mandate the installation of brake assist systems (BAS) on vehicles but rather specifies requirements for the approval of vehicles should they be equipped with a BAS system.

UN R140 (Electronic Stability Controls) Supplement 3 to clarify that the regulation does not mandate the installation of electronic stability control systems (ESC) on vehicles but rather specifies requirements for the approval of vehicles should they be equipped with an ESC system.

Vehicle Automation

It is worth noting now that the WP.29 Working Party on Automated/Autonomous and Connected Vehicles (GRVA) will hold a special session during June 3-4. This session will be followed by the June 24-28 WP.29 session. A main aim of this special GRVA session is to set the stage for some level of international consensus for pursuing safety requirements for automated vehicles, hopefully through fruitful discussions at the June WP.29 session (i.e., the policy-making level). We expect to provide a review of the outcomes in the July International Update.
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